International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research

Print ISSN: 2394-6369

Online ISSN: 2394-6377

CODEN : IJCBK6

International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research (IJCBR) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2014 and is published under auspices of the  Innovative Education and Scientific Research Foundation (IESRF), aim to uplift researchers, scholars, academicians, and professionals in all academic and scientific disciplines. IESRF is dedicated to the transfer of technology and research by publishing more...


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Jafri, Zaheda Nasreen, Chandan, and Shaikh: D – Dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, C – reactive protein, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are the significant indicators of suspected Covid – 19 patients


Introduction

There are different opinions with international levels about Covid-19.1 In the beginning, Covid ‘19 was spread through community contamination, later it was suspected airborne, waterborne, and community contaminations. In the early period, Covid-19 was suspected only viral disease recently it is found that it causing mutations and point mutations.2 Protein genes mutations and point mutations are irregular and unstable.3 Researchers, Scientists, and Clinicians are trying for plasma therapy and immune cell therapy.4 It is a hypothetical theory that might be soon gene therapy will be followed for the affected genes causing mutations and point mutations. COVID-19 patients have a favorable prognosis, but some rapidly progress to severe and critical cases with respiratory distress syndrome, coagulation dysfunction, multiple organ failure, etc.5 Therefore, early identification of severity is very important to the clinical diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19. Mostly used clinical laboratory coagulation profiles and other enzymes related to D- Dimer, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase, C Reactive Protein, Prothrombin Time, Activate Partial Prothrombin Time and fibrinogen could sensitively reflect the clotting state and enzymatic activity of the body.6

Aim

This study aims to investigate the elevation and significance of D- Dimer, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase, C – reactive protein, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are found the indicators of suspected covid – 19 patients.

Materials and Methods

A total number of 300 suspected patients and 200 healthy controls were enrolled for the study and compared their data for the elevation and significance of D- Dimer – Ferritin – Lactate Dehydrogenase - C - protein – prothrombin time and activated partial prothrombin time are found the indicators of suspected covid – 19 patients. 7, 8

This study was carried at Biochemistry Laboratory, Ayaan Hospital & Research Centre (A teaching hospital to Ayaan Institute of Medical Sciences, RR District, Telangana State, India).

The parameters were done on Cobas C 311, Mini Vidas, and Coagulometer.

Results

Comparison of D- Dimer, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase, C Reactive Protein, Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time in COVID-19 patients and health controls.

Table 1

Parameters

Covid ’19 Patients

Healthy Controls

p Value

Age and either Sex

40.66 ± 15.96

20.55 ± 10.85

<0.001

D-Dimer (ng/mL)

2565 ± 250.55

150 ± 85.62

<0.001

Ferritin (ng/mL)

1250 ± 150.75

125 ± 25.50

<0.001

LDH (IU/L)

855 ± 210

260 ± 55.40

<0.001

C – Reactive Protein(mg/L)

15 ± 8

4 - 6

<0.001

Prothrombin Time (Sec)

22 ± 55

13 ± 1.0

<0.001

A.P.T Time (Sec)

48 ± 10

30 ± 4.0

<0.001

Discussion

The results have shown that there are elevation and significance indicators of D- Dimer, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase, C – Reactive Protein, Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time in COVID-19 Patients which were compared to Healthy Controls for their normal limits.9

Conclusion

Although the above investigations are associated with severe disease of COVID 19. The values are at high risk of disease COVID 19. The COVID 19 pandemic disrupted medical science and management. These days researchers are intensely looking for suitable vaccines and clinicians are facing new symptoms of the disease and are using new treatments to improve the outcome of the disease.10

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

References

1 

WJ Guan ZY Ni Y Hu Clinical Characteristics of corona disease 2019 in ChinaN Engl J Med202038218170820

2 

N Zhu D Zhang W Wang A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in ChinaN Engl J Med2019382872733

3 

W Han B Quan Y Guo The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019J Med Virol20209254613

4 

N Tang D Li X Wang Z Sun Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumoniaJ Thromb Haemost20201848447

5 

C Huang Y Wang X Li Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in WuhanLancet202039510223497506

6 

D Wang B Hu C Hu Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, ChinaJAMA2020323111061

7 

Y Wan J Shang R Graham RS Baric F Li Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS CoronavirusJ Virol202094710.1128/jvi.00127-20

8 

S Kowalczuk A Broer N Tietze JM Vanslambrouk JEJ Rasko S Broer A protein complex in the brush-border membrane explains a Hartnup disorder alleleFASEB J200822828807

9 

B Gates Responding to COVID-19 – a once-in-century pandemic?N Engl J Med20203821816779

10 

T Zhou Q Liu Z Yang Preliminary prediction of the basic reproduction number of Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoVJ Evid Based Med202013137



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Article type

Original Article


Article page

143-144


Authors Details

Syed Ateeq Ahmed Jafri, Zaheda Nasreen, Dussa Hema Chandan, Mahmood Shaikh*


Article History

Received : 03-05-2021

Accepted : 14-05-2021

Available online : 23-07-2021


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