International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research

Print ISSN: 2394-6369

Online ISSN: 2394-6377

CODEN : IJCBK6

International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research (IJCBR) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2014 and is published under auspices of the  Innovative Education and Scientific Research Foundation (IESRF), aim to uplift researchers, scholars, academicians, and professionals in all academic and scientific disciplines. IESRF is dedicated to the transfer of technology and research by publishing more...


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Sri, Ravichandran, and Suneetha: Benefits of green chemistry


Introduction

Chemistry has become very important in our everyday life during last few centuries. Although chemistry is helping enormously to the quality of life, negative effect of some chemicals are not exactly known to the human health and environment, even though they have been in use for several decades. One of the biggest problems of today’s world is facing environmental pollution. Environmental pollution is the major causes of nature thrown chemicals, toxic gases drained from factory chimneys, water, mixed organic solvents. Displays on the rapidly growing environmental pollution by the most responsible as chemicals, chemists and chemical engineers began looking at alternative solutions. The most significant of alternative ways to reach a sustainable improvement in a world with a continually growing population and restricted resources is green chemistry. The term green chemistry1 was first used in 1991 by Prof. Paul T. Anastas to implement sustainable development2, 3, 4, 5 in chemistry and chemical technology by industry, academia and government. Green chemistry embodies two main components. First, it addresses the problem of efficient utilisation of raw materials and the concomitant elimination of waste. Second, it deals with the health, safety and environmental issues associated with the manufacture, use and disposal or reuse of chemicals. Green chemistry incorporates a new approach5, 6, 7 to the synthesis, processing and application of chemical substances in such a manner as to reduce threats to health and the environment. Green chemistry is commonly presented as a set of twelve principles proposed by Anastas and Warner. These principles are:

  1. It is better to prevent waste than treat or clean up waste after is formed.

  2. Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

  3. Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

  4. Chemical products should be designed to reduce toxicity

  5. The use of solvents should be made unnecessary wherever possible.

  6. Energy requirements should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at low temperature and pressure.

  7. Raw material or feedstock should be renewable.

  8. Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection should be avoided whenever possible

  9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

  10. Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into degradation products.

  11. Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to control the formation of hazardous substances.

  12. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

Benefits of Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry provides less waste formation. In fact Green Chemistry is a new approach to ensure preservation of human health and the environment. Energy conservation and consumption has long been known to produce a major environmental effect. Microwave irradiation in the solid state8 is a technique that is being utilized to affect chemical transformations rapidly, in contrast to those that have classically been conducted in liquid solutions. Solvent-free microwave assisted reactions9, 10, 11 provide an opportunity to work with open vessels and thus, avoiding the risk of high pressure and increasing the potential for scale up of such reactions. The practical feasibility of microwave assisted solvent free synthesis has been demonstrated in various useful transformations and in the synthesis of heterocyclic systems.8, 9, 10, 11

Significance of Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is multidisciplinary research area which involves knowledge from various disciplines like chemistry, chemical technology, biotechnology, molecular biology, ecology, toxicology. The inputs from the various disciplines can help while developing new and innovative technologies and green synthetic routes for chemical production. The greenness of a chemical synthesis can be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. As we are all aware that, Perchloroethylene (PERC), Cl2C=CCl2 is commonly being used as a solvent for dry cleaning. It is now known that PERC contaminates groundwater and is a suspected carcinogen. A technology, Known as Micell Technology developed by Joseph De Simons, Timothy Romark, and James McClain made use of liquid CO2 and a surfactant for dry cleaning clothes, thereby replacing PERC. Dry cleaning machines have now been developed using this technique. Micell Technology has also evolved a metal cleaning system that uses CO2 and a surfactant, thereby eliminating the need of halogenated solvents.

Conclusion

Green chemistry aims to develop new practice of chemistry with rules which provides resolutions to problems that human is facing today such as climate changes. Green Chemistry is a science that aims to emphasize the development of chemical methods and substances to protect the environment. It is significant to understand the principles of green chemistry for future generations. Most importantly we need the relevant scientific, engineering, educational and other communities to work together for sustainable future through Green Chemistry. Many inorganic and organic materials cause harmfull effects to human, ecosystem and environment. But Green chemistry plays a key role in sustainable development through green synthesis and energy efficient process of production, recyclable and reusable materials. Various international organizations working on principles of green chemistry i.e. prevention of wastage, incorporation all material used in the process, designing less hazardous synthetic methods, safer chemicals, biodegradable materials, using of renewable feed stock, more energy efficient process, catalytic process, use of green solvents etc.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

1 

PT Anastas JC Warner Green Chemistry, Theory and Practice148First EditionOxford University PressOxford, UK1998148

2 

M Lancaster Green Chemistry: An Introductory TextFirst EditionRoyal Society of ChemistryCambridge, England2002238

3 

PT Anastas RL Lankey Sustainability through green chemistry and engineeringACS Symp Series200282311110.1021/bk-2002-0823.ch001

4 

W Wardencki J Curyo J Namieoenik Green Chemistry- Current and Future IssuesPol J Environ Stud200514438995

5 

BV Badami Concept of green chemistryResonance200813111041810.1007/s12045-008-0124-8

6 

S Ravichandran Green Chemistry-A potential tool for chemicalsynthesisInt J Chem Tech201024218891

7 

S Ravichandran Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development AsianJ Biochem Pharm Res20111212935

8 

M Csiba J Cleophax A Loupy J Malthête SD Gero Liquid crystalline 5,6-O-acetals of L-galactono-1,4-lactone prepared by a microwave irradiation on montmorilloniteTetrahedron Lett1993341117879010.1016/s0040-4039(00)60779-7

9 

M Kidwai R Mohan S Saxena Solid-supported Hantzsch—Biginelli reaction for syntheses of pyrimidine derivativesRussian Chem Bull2003521124576010.1023/b:rucb.0000012370.16259.4f

10 

A Singh R Sharma KM Anand SP Khan N Sachan Food- drug interactionInt J Pharm Chem Sci20121126479

11 

JS Yadav KB Reddy KS Raj AR Prasad Perkin TransactionJ Chem Soc20001193941



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© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License - Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article type

Short Communication


Article page

70-72


Authors Details

R M Madhumitha Sri, S Ravichandran, T B Suneetha


Article History

Received : 22-02-2021

Accepted : 08-04-2021

Available online : 30-04-2021


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